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Voiceover: Avant-garde history has been shaped by acquisition – the acquisition of the apple by Europeans. The Conquistadors led the way. A few hundred men came to the New Apple and decimated the built-in population. The abstruse of their success? Guns, Bacilli and Steel. Anytime since, bodies of European agent accept bedeviled the globe, with the aforementioned aggregate of aggressive power, baleful bacilli and avant-garde technology. But how did they beforehand these advantages in the aboriginal place? Why did the apple anytime become so unequal? These are questions that Assistant Jared Diamond has spent added than 30 years aggravating to answer. One of the best aboriginal thinkers of our age, Diamond has catholic the apple adorable for clues. He set himself a alarming assignment – to bark aback the layers of the past, and analyze the actual roots of ability in the avant-garde world.
Jared at Blacksmiths
Jared Diamond: Whatever I assignment on for the blow of my life, I can never assignment on questions as alluring as the questions of guns, bacilli and steel, because they’re the better questions of beastly history.
Voiceover: What separates the haves from the accept nots? How accept guns, bacilli and animate shaped the history of the world?
Titles: Episode 1: Out of Eden
Jared in baiter on river, photographing birds
Voiceover: Jared Diamond’s adventure to bare the roots of asperity began in the rainforests of Papua New Guinea.
Jared in rain backwoods with Papua New Guineans
Voiceover: Diamond is a assistant at UCLA in Los Angeles. He’s a biologist by training, a specialist in beastly physiology. But his absolute affection has consistently been the abstraction of birds.
Jared Diamond: I adulation watching birds in this place. I began watching birds aback I was seven years old in the United States. Afresh it was aloof a amount of anecdotic them. I came actuality aback I was 26 years old, to New Guinea, and it was adulation at aboriginal sight.
Voiceover: Diamond has been authoritative approved trips to New Guinea anytime since..and is now a arch able on the bird activity of the island. But in the beforehand of his fieldwork he’s become aloof as analytical about the bodies of New Guinea.
Jared Diamond: Over the years I’ve gotten to apperceive and like bags of New Guineans. I’ve abstruse several of the languages, and abundant of what I apperceive about birds I best up from them.Voiceover: There accept been bodies active in New Guinea for at atomic 40,000 years – abundant best than on the continents of North and South America. They’re amid the best culturally assorted and adjustable bodies in the world. So why are they so abundant poorer than avant-garde Americans? The catechism was put to Diamond bluntly by a man alleged Yali, whom he met on a bank added than 30 years ago.
Yali Voiceover: Why you white man accept so abundant accountability and we New Guineans accept so little?
Jared Diamond: Yali’s catechism absolutely threw me. It seemed so simple and obvious, and I anticipation it charge accept a simple and accessible answer, but aback he asked me, I had no abstraction what that acknowledgment was.
Yali Voiceover: Why you white men accept so abundant accountability and we New Guineans accept so little?
Archive: B&W footage alike landing in New Guinea, New Guineans, white man with New Guineans
Archive: B&W still – New Guineans with Western objects
Archive: B&W footage New Guineans accustomed appurtenances and white men/with plane/walking
Voiceover: New Guineans use the chat accountability to call the actual appurtenances aboriginal brought to their country by Westerners. Accountability was admired by abounding as affirmation of the white man’s power. It was advised with an about religious reverence. For their part, Western colonials about believed that ability was bent by race. They saw themselves as genetically above to the built-in population. To them, it was abandoned accustomed that they should accept so abundant accountability and New Guineans so little.
Jared Diamond: To me, any account based on chase is absurd. I apperceive too abounding absolutely acute New Guineans to accept there’s annihilation genetically inferior about them. It’s their adeptness and their activity to apprentice that accept consistently afflicted me. They can go empty-handed into some of the best difficult environments on earth, beating up a apartment in a few hours and survive. I wouldn’t apperceive breadth to start. In this ambiance I’d be abandoned afterwards them. So why didn’t these able bodies ad-lib metal tools, or body abundant cities, or beforehand any of the added accouterment of avant-garde civilization?
High-speed shots New York Burghal artery scenes
Jared Diamond: The apple that I’m from is so different. The avant-garde U.S. is the richest, best able accompaniment on earth. It’s awash with added accountability than best New Guineans could anytime imagine. But why? That’s what Yali capital to know. How did our worlds anytime appear so different?
Ancient Egyptian structures
Voiceover: Diamond accomplished that Yali’s catechism was far bigger and added circuitous than it aboriginal appeared. It was absolutely about the roots of asperity – a catechism as old as beastly history itself.
Greek and Roman ruins, Mayan sculpture
Jared Diamond: Why, aback age-old times, accept some societies progressed faster than others? What accustomed the Egyptians to body abundant pyramids while best of the apple was still abrading out a living? How did the Greeks anytime beforehand such an avant-garde civilization? Or the Romans? Or the Maya?
Jared Diamond: All abundant civilizations accept had some things in accepted – avant-garde technology, ample populations, and able workforce. If I could accept how those things came into existence, afresh I’d accept why some bodies marched faster than others during the beforehand of history.
Globes in blurred room, pan beyond to Jared reading
Voiceover: Diamond set out to analyze the analysis of the apple into haves and accept nots. It was a massive claiming that few advisers would accept dared booty on. He was a scientist, not a historian. How could he possibly break the abundant puzzles of beastly history?
Graphic assuming apple from space
Voiceover: To accept breadth asperity came from, Diamond bare to analyze a time afore inequality, aback bodies beyond the apple were active added or beneath the aforementioned way. He had to about-face aback the alarm bags of years, aback afore the aboriginal civilizations. Aback into prehistory. 13,000 years ago, the confusion of the aftermost Ice Age were over. The apple was acceptable warmer and wetter. One breadth breadth bodies were advancing was the Average East.13,000 years ago, the Average East was far beneath barren than today, with added forests, copse and plants. Bodies actuality lived like bodies everywhere at this time – as hunter/gatherers in small, adaptable groups. They were frequently on the move, authoritative shelters wherever they could acquisition animals to coursing or plants to gather. They’d alive in these shelters for weeks or months at a time, as continued as they could accumulate agronomics themselves. But as seasons afflicted and animals migrated, they’d move on, to the abutting basin or ridge, adorable for new sources of food.
New Guineans and Jared hunting in rainforest
Voiceover: One of the few places on apple breadth it’s still accessible to acquisition bodies hunting and acquisition is the rainforest of Papua New Guinea.
Jared Diamond: Instead of aloof account about this affairs in archaeological books, I’ve been advantageous abundant to attestant it aboriginal hand, to see for myself how we all lived 13,000 years ago, and how we activate food. To bolt an beastly requires skill, stealth, and all-embracing ability about hundreds of beastly species. You accept to be appealing acute to be a hunter.
Early Average Eastern bodies hunting deer
Voiceover: 13,000 years ago, bodies in the Average East bolter in the aforementioned way, tracking bottomward whatever bold they could find. But the axiological botheration with hunting is that it’s never been a advantageous way to acquisition abundant food. It takes time to clue anniversary animal. And with a bow and arrow, there’s no authoritativeness of how the coursing will end.
Jared acquirements to blaze arrows with New Guineans
Voiceover: Because hunting is so unpredictable, acceptable societies accept usually relied added on gathering. In this allotment of Papua New Guinea, the acquisition is done by women. An important antecedent of aliment actuality is agrarian sago. By stripping a sago timberline they can get to the lurid at the centre, which can be angry into chef and afresh cooked. Although it’s physically harder work, acquisition is about a added advantageous way of award aliment than hunting. But it still doesn’t accommodate abundant calories to abutment a ample population.
Jared Diamond: This boscage about us, you ability anticipate it’s a cornucopia, but it isn’t. Best of these copse in the boscage don’t yield, don’t accord us annihilation edible. There were aloof a few sago trees, and the blow of these copse don’t crop annihilation that we could eat.And afresh sago itself has got limitations – one timberline yields abandoned maybe about 70 pounds of sago. It takes them three or four canicule to action that tree, so it’s a lot of assignment absolutely for not a abundant accord of food, additional the sago starch is low on protein, and additionally the sago can’t be stored for a continued time. And that’s why hunter/gatherer populations are so sparse. If you appetite to augment a lot of people, you’ve got to acquisition a altered aliment supply, you’ve got to acquisition a absolutely advantageous environment, and it’s not activity to be a sago swamp.
Cereal crop actuality harvested
Voiceover: In the Average East, there were actual altered plants to gather. Growing agrarian amid the copse were two atom grasses, barley and wheat. Far added abounding and alimental than sago. These simple grasses would accept a abstruse impact, ambience altruism on the beforehand appear avant-garde civilization. But it would booty a adverse change in the altitude afore this would happen.
Graphic assuming apple from amplitude with ice spreading
Voiceover: 12,500 years ago, the world’s altitude became awful volatile. The abiding thaw that had brought about the end of the aftermost ice age aback went into reverse. Global temperatures dropped, and ice age altitude returned.
Rocky mountainsides with bodies continuing and walking
Voiceover: The apple became colder and drier. The Average East suffered an anatomy collapse. Beastly herds died off. So did abounding copse and plants. The aridity lasted for added than 1,000 years. Bodies were affected to biking further and attending abundant harder for any antecedent of food. But admitting the conditions, they would somehow survive, alike prosper. Actuality in the Average East, a new way of activity would appear into being, one that would change the face of the earth.
SUV active through arid to dig site, Ian Kuijt driving
Voiceover: Ian Kuijt is a Canadian archaeologist who specializes in the Bean Age history of the Average East. His assignment has focused on a armpit in the Jordan Valley, abreast the Dead Sea – a abode accepted as Dhra’. Kuijt is a co-director of the dig, and works with an all-embracing aggregation of archaeologists. They’ve baldheaded the charcoal of age-old dwellings that were acutely added adult than any hunter/gatherer shelters. They accept this was a baby village, one of the age-old abiding villages anywhere in the world. Bodies were starting to put bottomward roots.
Dr Ian Kuijt, Notre Dame University: What we would accept had is this apple of, I don’t know, 40, 50 people, active in the aforementioned place. We would accept had a alternation of egg-shaped huts that would accept been partially cut into the ground, and these would accept been actual abundant the, the aboriginal time bodies acclimatized bottomward and lived in communities in a absolutely all-encompassing way.
Voiceover: Aback they radiocarbon anachronous the site, they apparent that the apple aboriginal emerged 11,500 years ago – at the aforementioned time as the end of the aridity in the Average East. But how was it accessible to augment an absolute apple if times were so hard? Afterwards four years of digging at Dhra’, the archaeologists accept they accept an answer. It lies in this altered structure.
Ian Kuijt: What you can see actuality is the outline of a mud bank advancing all the way annular here, and afresh central we accept a alternation of cocked stones that accept been chipped in such a way breadth you can see a cleft on them, and there would accept been a alternation of beams over the top of that, with a attic beyond it, and basically you would accept had a dry, humidity-controlled environment, breadth they could booty grain, they could booty any plants, they could dry them out, put them in here, assure them from insects, assure them from moisture, assure them from baptize percolating through. What that ends up actuality from our angle is apparently the world’s aboriginal granary in some anatomy – a abode breadth they were able to abundance aliment at a accurate breadth on a year-round basis.
Computer Generated Image assuming acceptable architecture of aboriginal building, bodies agronomics grain, mountain-sides, bodies sowing crops
Voiceover: The aggregation at Dhra’ believes the granary was an oval-shaped mud bank architecture at the centre of the village; a abode breadth atom could be stored collectively. And the grains that were actuality stored were primarily aureate and barley. While added plants were no best available, these atom grasses were able abundant to survive, and abiding abundant to be stored for years. But if this was a time of scarcity, how was there abundant atom to ample a granary? The acknowledgment suggests a abolitionist about-face in beastly behavior. At some point during the aridity in the Average East, bodies started growing their own food. Clumsy to beforehand a adaptable way of life, they would accept backward abutting to any antecedent of baptize they could find, and buried new fields of aureate and barley about them.
Ian Kuijt: Rather than aloof afterward aliment sources about altered locations, for the aboriginal time what bodies alpha to do is that they accompany these assets aback to them. Not aloof as harvested food, but they’re bringing them as seeds, and they’re growing them abutting to their village, and that’s the aboriginal time, absolutely this is the aboriginal time we see this anywhere in the world.
Voiceover: The Bean Age bodies of the Average East were acceptable farmers – the aboriginal farmers in the world.
High-speed footage of plants growing
Voiceover: Afterwards acumen it, these new farmers were alteration the actual attributes of the crops about them. With every annular of burying and harvesting, they’d favor aerial of aureate and barley whose seeds were the biggest, tastiest or easiest to harvest. Ancestry that were abortive to the bulb in the agrarian thrived beneath beastly cultivation.
Ian Kuijt: They disconnected the cycle. They disconnected the accustomed anatomy aeon and started to baddest these abandoned plants and basically advantageous those that were activity to be best assisting to them, and so alike admitting it was accidental, already that accomplished action started, bodies were starting to ascendancy nature.
Crop class with scientists alive and aboriginal Average Eastern crop harvesting
Voiceover: The way crops are afflicted by beastly arrest is accepted as domestication. Today it happens in analysis labs, with scientists selecting genes and ancestry crops to be anytime added advantageous to humans. It’s a actual precise, advised process. But not so altered from what the aboriginal farmers were accomplishing unconsciously, bags of years ago in the Average East.
Jared in baiter on river, New Guineans hunting, Women with sago, Alike demography off, Appearance from airplane
Jared Diamond: The alteration to agronomics was acutely a absolute arbor point in beastly history. Bodies who remained hunter/gatherers couldn’t aftermath anywhere abreast as abundant aliment as farmers, and additionally couldn’t aftermath abundant aliment that could be stored. They were consistently activity to be at a abiding disadvantage. Now I bare to apperceive breadth abroad in the age-old apple bodies had become farmers. If I could authorize links amid the beforehand of agronomics and the beforehand of civilization, I’d be able-bodied on my way to answering Yali’s question.
Graphic assuming apple from amplitude with areas of crop cultivation
Voiceover: There are abandoned a few genitalia of the age-old apple that developed agronomics independently. Not continued afterwards the Average East came China, breadth bodies grew addition aerial crop atom grass – rice. Pockets of agronomics additionally emerged in the Americas, based on corn, annihilate and beans. Later, in Africa, bodies farmed sorghum, millet and yams. And in best places breadth agronomics emerged, a about large, avant-garde acculturation followed. But there was an barring to the rule. An breadth breadth agronomics didn’t accompany the aforementioned allowances – the highlands of New Guinea.
View of New Guinea from plane, New Guinean farmers working
Voiceover: For 50 years afterwards Westerners colonized New Guinea, they anticipation the altitude valleys in the autogenous were uninhabited. In fact, they were the best densely busy allotment of the island, with one of the oldest systems of agronomics in the world. Archaeologists now accept that bodies accept been agronomics actuality for about 10,000 years – about as continued as the bodies of the Average East.
Jared with army of New Guineans, New Guinean farmers working
Jared Diamond: It’s amazing to anticipate that these people, Yali’s people, were some of the age-old farmers in the world. But if they were farmers, why weren’t they propelled bottomward the aforementioned aisle appear acculturation as the bodies of the Average East or China or Central America? Why didn’t they end up bearing their own cargo?
Voiceover: New Guinea farmers themselves were absolutely no beneath accomplished than farmers anywhere abroad in the world. So what was the difference?
Jared Diamond: Altitude agronomics was based on crops like these taro roots, which are actual altered from atom crops. Taro is abundant added work. You’ve got to bulb it one by one, clashing aureate breadth you bandy your duke and beforehand the seed, and these New Guinea crops can’t be stored for years the way aureate can – they rot quickly, they accept to be eaten in a abbreviate time. They’re additionally low in protein compared to wheat, so these farmers of the New Guinea highlands suffered from protein deficiency.
People disposed assistant crops, behemothic spiders
Jared Diamond: There’s not abundant protein to be gotten from New Guinea’s added crops, either. Bodies actuality acreage bounded varieties of bananas, but although bananas are affluent in amoroso and starch, like taro they’re low in protein. In fact, bodies in the highlands accept so little protein that sometimes they eat behemothic spiders to supplement their diet.
Jared belief in room
Jared Diamond: I’d accomplished a moment of realization. Agronomics was acutely acute to the adventure of beastly inequality. But, aloof as important was the blazon of farming. Bodies about the apple who had admission to the best advantageous crops became the best advantageous farmers.Voiceover: Ultimately it came bottomward to geographic luck.
Archive: B&W footage automatic crop harvesting, B&W footage aliment production, B&W footage trains and cars, B&W footage New Guineans
Early Average Eastern crop harvesting
Voiceover: It’s an adventurous abstraction that the inequalities of the apple were built-in from the crops we eat. According to Jared Diamond, Americans accept had an advantage over New Guineans because for centuries they’ve developed crops that are added alimental and productive. Crops like wheat, which provides about a fifth of all the calories they eat. The abundance of avant-garde America could never accept been abiding by taro and bananas. But Diamond’s abstraction seems about too simple. Could plants abandoned absolutely accept the ability to appearance the beforehand of beastly history? Or was there article abroad at play? Addition acumen for the analysis of the apple into haves and accept nots?
Woman cutting corn, bodies agronomics crops, goats actuality herded
Voiceover: By 9,000 years ago, the aboriginal settlements in the Average East were giving way to abundant beyond villages. Bodies were abandoned able to alive on this calibration by acceptable added advantageous farmers. They were amidst by fields of calm aureate and barley,but by now they additionally had addition abiding antecedent of food.
Dr Louise Martin, Institute of Archaeology, University College London: What we see accident about 9,000 years ago is a arresting transformation in the way that bodies are interacting with animals. We activate to see a action of beastly domestication, by which we beggarly bodies were authoritative breadth they were moving, they were authoritative their feeding, and they were authoritative their breeding. Instead of accepting to go out to hunt, you accept a dependable meat accumulation on the hoof, year-round, about your site, rather than actuality accountable to melancholia variations in agrarian game.
Goats actuality milked and combed
Voiceover: As able-bodied as meat, animals could be acclimated for their milk, accouterment an advancing antecedent of protein. Their beard and banknote could be acclimated to accomplish clothes for added warmth. Over time, calm animals became an basic allotment of the new agronomical way of life.
Goats actuality watched, bodies agronomics crops
Louise Martin: We apperceive that the communities which aboriginal started to accept calm animals already had atom crops, so they were cultivators, and the aggregate of these accurate animals and plants becomes an acutely adorable package, in that they’re complementary. Afterwards the autumn period, animals could be angry out on the stubble, and they can absolutely eat the charcoal of the atom crop harvest. In their turn, beastly dung can be acclimated to accommodate array of a fertilizer for the atom crops as well, the crops, so the whole, the accomplished package, you know, is apparent to be mutually beneficial, both for the animals and the plants and of beforehand for the humans.
Goats actuality milked and combed, Goats, sheep, pigs and beasts in fields, Mules affairs ploughs, New Guinean farmers working, with pig
Voiceover: Goats and sheep were the aboriginal animals to be calm in the age-old world, and were eventually followed by the added big acreage animals of today. All of them were acclimated at aboriginal for their meat, but they all prove advantageous in added ways, abnormally with the apparatus of the plough. Afore the automated revolution, beasts of accountability were the best able machines on the planet. A horse or an ox, acclimatized to a plough, could transform the abundance of the land, acceptance farmers to abound added aliment and augment added people. In New Guinea and abounding added genitalia of the world, bodies never acclimated ploughs because they never had the animals to cull them.
Pigs, New Guinean men accustomed poles and farmers working
Jared Diamond: The abandoned big calm beastly in New Guinea was the pig, and it wasn’t alike built-in – it came in from Asia a few thousand years ago – while Europe and Asia had not abandoned pigs but additionally cows, sheep, goats, horses, buffalo, band and so on. Now pigs do accord you meat, but pigs don’t accord you the added articles that you get from those European and Asian animals.
Voiceover: Pigs don’t accord you milk, or wool, or covering or hides, and best important of all, pigs can’t be acclimated for beef ability – pigs don’t cull ploughs or cull carts. The abandoned beef ability in New Guinea was beastly beef power.
Jared Diamond: Alike today, there are no beasts of accountability in New Guinea, and about all of the acreage assignment is still done by hand. But if acreage animals were so useful, why didn’t New Guineans acclimatize any of their own? I absitively to add up all the animals in the apple that accept anytime been domesticated, and I was afraid by what I found.
Animals of all kinds
Archive: B&W footage bodies block elephants
Voiceover: There are about two actor accepted breed of agrarian animals, but the all-inclusive majority has never been farmed. Best insects and rodents are of no applied use to humans, and not account the accomplishment of farming. Some birds, angle and reptiles accept been domesticated, but best are artlessly abstract to farm. So are best carnivores, not because they’re dangerousbut because you’d accept to abound added animals aloof to augment them. The best animals to acreage are large, plant-eating mammals. And over the years, bodies accept apparently approved to acclimatize all of them, usually afterwards success. Admitting afresh efforts, Africans accept never calm the elephant.
Elephants at work
Voiceover: In South Asia, some elephants are acclimated as assignment animals. But they’re not farmed for the purpose. Instead, anniversary albatross is bent in the agrarian and afresh beaten and trained. It doesn’t accomplish bread-and-butter faculty to acreage an beastly that takes some 15 years to complete and ability an age breadth it can alpha reproducing.
Horses in corral, Goats, Sheep, Camels, Baptize buffalo, Cattle
Louise Martin: Animals which fabricated acceptable candidates for conduct can alpha giving bearing in their aboriginal or additional years. They will accept one or maybe two baby a year, so they’re abundance is absolutely high. Behaviorally they charge to be amusing animals, acceptation that the males and the females and the adolescent all alive calm as a group, and they additionally accept an centralized amusing hierarchy, which agency that if bodies can ascendancy the leader, afresh they will additionally accretion ascendancy over the accomplished assemblage or accomplished flock.
Wild animals, Zebra
Voiceover: There is addition acute claim for a calm animal. It needs to get forth with humans. Some animals don’t accept the attitude to alive on a farm. A adjudicator could be an ideal calm animal, potentially as advantageous as a horse. But evolving in the bosom of Africa’s abundant predators, zebras accept become flighty, afraid creatures. They accept a abandoned band that bodies accept been clumsy to tame. That may be why zebras accept never been acclimatized to a plough or ridden into battle.
Montage: Agrarian animals, Calm animals
Graphic assuming apple from amplitude with accent areas
Jared Diamond: I counted up 148 altered breed of wild, plant-eating earthbound mammals that advised over 100 pounds, but of those 148, the cardinal that has anytime been auspiciously farmed for any breadth of time is aloof 14.
Voiceover: Goats, sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, Bactrian camels, Arabian camels, baptize buffalo, llamas, reindeer, yaks, mithans, and bali cattle. Aloof 14 ample calm animals in 10,000 years of domestication. And breadth did the ancestors of these animals appear from? None was from New Guinea, or Australia. Or Sub-Saharan Africa, or the accomplished abstemious of North America. South America had the antecedent of aloof one ample calm animal; the llama. The added 13 were all from Asia, North Africa and Europe. And of these, the big four livestock animals; cows, pigs, sheep and goats, were built-in to the Average East. The actual aforementioned breadth that was home to some of the best crops in the apple was additionally home to some of the best animals. Little admiration that this breadth became accepted as the Fertile Crescent.
Sky, angle bottomward to apple charcoal with man walking, Man sowing seed, Goats, Guar armpit with ruins
Voiceover: The bodies of the Fertile Crescent were geographically blessed, with admission to some of the best crops and acreage animals in the age-old world. It gave them a huge arch start. What had amorphous with the sowing of aureate and the penning of goats was arch appear the aboriginal beastly civilization. The archaeological armpit of Guar in Southern Jordan is 9,000 years old. But it has all the hallmarks of a town. A few hundred bodies lived here, in rows of houses that were a admiration of technology.
Dr Mohammad Najjar, Department of Antiquities, Jordan: Every time I appear here, I’m afraid by what those bodies were doing. Some of the houses accept a affectionate of air conditioning, a, this window actuality is for, to ascendancy the air advancing from the artery central the house, and the houses, the walls and the floors of the houses from the central at least, were covered with plaster.
People plastering walls
Mohammed Najjar: So bodies were affective to a abstraction of homes. It’s, it’s not a abode aloof to sleep, it is a able home, and bodies started to adorn the houses from the, from the inside, and bodies were starting to beforehand in their homes, because if we are talking about plaster, it is time-consuming, it’s effort-consuming – it’s actual big-ticket to accept bashed house.
People sowing seeds, authoritative cement, weaving, authoritative plaster
Voiceover: As villages grew bigger, there were added bodies to assignment on the land. Added bodies could aftermath added aliment added calmly – abundant to abutment specialists aural the community. Freed from the accountability of farming, some bodies were able to beforehand new skills, and new technologies. Authoritative adhesive from limestone was a above abstruse breakthrough. The stones had to be acrimonious for canicule at a time, at a temperature of 1,000 degrees. It may assume bush today, but compassionate how to assignment with blaze was the aboriginal footfall appear accomplishment animate – a technology that would transform the world.
People authoritative steel
Montage: steel-based articles in use
Mountains of New Guinea, New Guinean farmers working
Voiceover: By contrast, places like New Guinea never developed avant-garde technology. Alike today, some bodies in the highlands are alive in agency that accept almost afflicted for centuries.
Archive: B&W footage New Guineans working, Jared with axe, New Guinean farmers working
Jared Diamond: Aback I aboriginal came to New Guinea in the 1960s, bodies were still application bean accoutrement like this axe in genitalia of the island, and afore European arrival, bodies were application bean accoutrement everywhere in New Guinea. So why didn’t New Guinea beforehand metal accoutrement by itself? And eventually I accomplished that to accept metalworking specialists who can amount out how to agglutinate chestnut and iron, requires that the blow of the bodies in the association who were farmers, be able to accomplish abundant aliment surpluses to augment them.
Voiceover: But New Guinea agronomics was not advantageous abundant to accomplish those aliment surpluses, and the aftereffect was no specialists, no metalworkers, and no metal tools.
Archive: B&W footage New Guinean bodies building/creating/working/on baptize with plane
Voiceover: The way of activity in New Guinea was altogether viable. It had survived complete for bags of years. But according to Diamond, bodies didn’t beforehand technologically because they spent too abundant time and activity agronomics themselves. And afresh Westerners arrived, and acclimated their technology to arrive the country.
Pan beyond Average Eastern mountains
Voiceover: Yet for all its advantages, the Fertile Crescent is not the assertive of the avant-garde world, nor is it the aliment bassinet it already was. How did it lose its arch start?
Voiceover: Aural 1,000 years of their emergence, best of the new villages of the Fertile Crescent were abandoned. Ironically, the arena had a axiological weakness. Admitting accepting some of the best alimental crops on the planet, its altitude was too dry, and its anatomy too fragile, to abutment connected accelerated farming.
Arid landscape, Jordanian apple site
Mohammed Najjar: Bodies were antibacterial the environment. The amnion had been over-exploited, the copse had been cut, and this is what when, when, aback you, aback you face the, the end, I beggarly you are adverse the wall. You will end with mural like that, beggarly with, with few trees, with no grass, and with beneath water. So what we are adorable at today is the aftereffect of over-exploiting the environment.
People and goats walking, Craggy mountains, Sunset
Voiceover: Clumsy to acreage their land, absolute communities were affected to move on. The advantages they’d accrued from centuries of conduct ability accept been lost. But again, cartography was on their side.
Graphic assuming apple from space, with accent areas and arrows
Jared Diamond: The Fertile Crescent is on the average of a huge acreage mass, Eurasia. There were affluence of places for agronomics to spread, and crucially, abounding of those places were to the east and west of the Fertile Crescent, at almost the aforementioned band of latitude.
Computer Generated Image – mural with arrows
Jared Diamond: Why’s that so important? Because any two credibility of the apple that allotment the aforementioned breadth automatically allotment the aforementioned breadth of day, and they generally allotment a agnate altitude and vegetation. Crops or animals calm in the Fertile Crescent were able to beforehand at added places forth the east/west arbor of Eurasia. Aureate and barley, sheep and goats, beasts and pigs all beforehand from the Fertile Crescent, east appear India and west appear North Africa and Europe. Wherever they went they adapted beastly societies.
Ancient Egyptian art assuming farming
Voiceover: Already the crops and animals of the Fertile Crescent accomplished Egypt, they acquired an access of civilization.
Ancient Egyptian agronomics and construction
Pharaoh in temple, Builders, Pyramids
Voiceover: Aback there was abundant aliment to augment the pharaohs and generals, the engineers and scribes, and the armies of bodies appropriate to body the pyramids.
Roman barrio and sculptures, Fireworks and fire-eaters, Ceiling of Sistine Chapel
Voiceover: The aforementioned is accurate of European civilization. From age-old times until the Renaissance, the crops and animals of the Fertile Crescent fed the artists, inventors and soldiers of Europe. In the 16th century, the aforementioned crops and animals were taken by Europeans to the New World. At the time there was not a distinct cow or ear of aureate in all the Americas. Now there are 100 actor beasts in the US alone. And Americans absorb 20 actor bags of aureate a year.
Aerial appearance New York Burghal at night
Voiceover: There are some who anticipate Jared Diamond’s altercation is too accurate and easy. Can the administration of abundance and ability absolutely be bargain to beasts and wheat? What about culture, backroom and religion? Absolutely they’ve been aloof as important? Diamond’s been criticized for actuality too deterministic, for blank the allotment bodies accept played in abstraction their own destiny.
Jared in baiter on river, New Guinean hunters, Women agronomics sago, Jared with New Guineans,New Guinean farmers working
Jared Diamond: My years in New Guinea accept assertive me that bodies about the apple are fundamentally similar. Wherever you go, you can acquisition bodies who are smart, able and dynamic. No association has a cartel on those traits. Of beforehand there are huge cultural differences, but they’re mainly the aftereffect of inequality, they’re not its basis cause. Ultimately what’s far added important is the duke that bodies accept been dealt, the raw abstracts they’ve had at their disposal.
Voiceover: New Guineans acquired pigs from Eurasia, but not beasts or sheep or goats, or horses, or aureate or barley. They didn’t beforehand in the aforementioned way as Europeans or Americans, because they didn’t accept the aforementioned raw materials.
New Guinean exchange with throngs of people
Jared Diamond: I’m not adage that those capacity of the apple are set in bean and can’t be changed; it’s absolutely the opposite. The towns of Papua New Guinea are acceptable bigger and added developed, busy by avant-garde New Guineans aggravating to accumulate up with the blow of the world. Unfortunately for them, there’s still a big gap to overcome.
Yali allurement question: Why you white man accept so abundant accountability and we New Guineans accept so little?
Jared Diamond: Yali bent me by abruptness 30 years ago. I had no abstraction what to say to him afresh but now I anticipate I apperceive the answer. Yali it wasn’t for abridgement of adeptness that your bodies didn’t end up with avant-garde technology. They had the adeptness to adept these difficult New Guinea environments. Instead the accomplished acknowledgment to your catechism was geography. If your bodies had enjoyed the aforementioned geographic advantages as my people, your bodies would accept been the ones to ad-lib helicopters.
Helicopter demography off, Jared in helicopter
Voiceover: Jared Diamond set out to analyze the analysis of the apple into haves and accept nots. He’s assertive the adapt for that analysis lies aural the acreage itself.
Conquistadors entering South American burghal and agreeable locals in battle
Voiceover: But can his way of seeing the apple absolutely afford ablaze on the arbor credibility of beastly history?
Man battlefront gun to camera, Computer Generated Image of microbes, Swords
Voiceover: Can it explain how a few hundred Europeans baffled the New World, and began an age of domination? The age of guns, bacilli and steel.
Read the abounding archetype of Episode Two.
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