Two canicule afterwards (Wednesday, June 24, 1953) during a altercation of accession investigation, a detective of the New York City Badge Department told an FBI abettor about the aberrant alveolate nickel which, he had heard, was apparent by a Brooklyn youth. The detective had accustomed his advice from accession badge administrator whose babe was acquainted with the newsboy.
When the New York detective contacted him, Jimmy handed over the alveolate nickel and the photograph it contained. The detective, in turn, gave the bread to the FBI.
In analytical the nickel, agents of the FBI’s New York Office acclaimed that the microphotograph appeared to portray annihilation added again ten columns of typewritten numbers. There was bristles digits in anniversary cardinal and 21 numbers in best columns. The agents anon doubtable that they had begin a coded espionage message. They anxiously captivated the nickel and microphotograph for accession to the FBI Laboratory.
Upon its cancellation in Washington on June 26, 1953, the nickel was subjected to the complete analysis of a aggregation of FBI accurate experts. Alveolate coins, admitting rarely apparent by the accustomed citizen, are occasionally acclimated in abracadabra acts and appear to the absorption of federal law administration agencies from time to time. This was the aboriginal time, however, that the FBI had anytime encountered a nickel actually like this one.
The face of the bread was a 1948 Jefferson nickel. In the “R” of the chat “TRUST”, there was a tiny hole—obviously able there so that a able aggravate or added baby accoutrement could be amid to force the nickel open.
The about-face ancillary had been fabricated from accession nickel— one minted ancient during the aeon of 1942 to 1945. It was composed of copper-silver alloy, there actuality a curtailment of nickel during Apple War II.
While efforts were actuality fabricated to break the bulletin on the microphotograph, FBI agents in New York launched an analysis to acquisition the antecedent of the alveolate coin. The two ladies who had afflicted the newboy’s dollar on the black of June 22 were located. Yes, they remembered Jimmy; but, if either had accustomed him a alveolate nickel, it was actually unintentional. “Why, we’ve never apparent a alveolate coin— or, for that matter, alike heard of one before.”
The proprietors of change food and accompanying business establishments in the New York around were contacted. Photographs of the alveolate bread were apparent to them. None could anamnesis seeing a nickel or added bread actually like this one.
“It’s not acceptable for a abracadabra trick,” one change salesman commented. “The hollowed-out breadth is too baby to adumbrate annihilation abreast from a tiny allotment of paper.
In Washington, anniversary accomplishment to analyze the microphotograph met with failure. Additionally, the affectionate of typewriter which had been acclimated in advancing the coded bulletin could not be identified. Back the FBI Laboratory maintains a advertence book apropos typewriters bogus in the United States, a foreign-made typewriter assuredly was involved.
From 1953 to 1957, continuing efforts were fabricated to break the abstruseness of the alveolate coin. Several aloft intelligence agents who had defected to the chargeless apple from communist-bloc nations were contacted. They could afford no ablaze on the case.
As the chase for the antecedent of the alveolate nickel broadcast aloft the United States, alveolate alms tokens, “trick” coins, and agnate altar were submitted to the FBI Laboratory by agents in assorted genitalia of the country. From New York came a bisected dollar which had been arena in such a address that abate bill could be buried beneath it. From Los Angeles came a peculiar-looking 1953 Lincoln penny. FBI scientists bent that it had been coated with nickel.
Two alveolate pennies were begin in Washington, D.C. Neither of these pennies, nor the array of added bill which the Laboratory examined, was begin to accept accoutrement arrangement or added appropriate appearance to analyze it with the newsboy’s 1948 Jefferson nickel.
In the intelligence and counterintelligence field, backbone is added than a virtue. It is an complete necessity. Months of bent acid by the FBI’s scientists and analytic agents had led abandoned to one aphotic alleyway afterwards another. Yet, the adamant chase to analyze the actuality who had brought the alveolate nickel to New York, as able-bodied as the actuality for whom the coded bulletin was intended, continued.
Defection of a Russian Spy
The key to this abstruseness accustomed to be a 36-year-old Lieutenant Colonel of the Soviet Accompaniment Security Account (KGB). Aboriginal in May 1957, he telephoned the United States Admiral in Paris and afterwards accustomed at the admiral to be interviewed. To an admiral official, the Russian espionage abettor explained, “I’m an administrator in the Soviet intelligence service. For the able bristles years, I accept been operating in the United States. Now I charge your help.”
This spy, Reino Hayhanen, declared that he had aloof been ordered to acknowledgment to Moscow. Afterwards bristles years in the United States, he alarming the anticipation of action aback to his communist-ruled homeland. He capital to defect— to arid the Soviet camp.
Hayhanen was built-in abreast Leningrad on May 14, 1920. His parents were peasants. Despite his bashful background, Hayhanen was an account apprentice and, in 1939, acquired the agnate of a affirmation to advise aerial school.
In September 1939, Hayhanen was appointed to the primary academy adroitness in the Village of Lipitzi. Two months later, however, he was affected by the Communists’ abstruse police, the NKVD. Back he had brash the Finnish accent and was actual able in its use, Hayhanen was assigned as an analyst to an NKVD accumulation and beatific to the action breadth to construe captured abstracts and catechize prisoners during the Finnish-Soviet war.
With the end of this war in 1940, Hayhanen was assigned to analysis the adherence and believability of Soviet workers in Finland and to advance informants and sources of advice in their midst. His primary cold was to analyze anti-Soviet elements amid the intelligentsia.
Hayhanen became a admired able in Finnish intelligence affairs and in May 1943 was accustomed into associates in the Soviet Communist Party. Afterward Apple War II, he rose to the rank of chief accessible accustomed adumbrative of the Segozerski commune breadth of the NKGB and, with address in the Village of Padani, set about the appointment of anecdotic agitator elements amid the bounded citizens.
In the summer of 1948, Hayhanen was alleged to Moscow by the KGB. The Soviet intelligence account had a new appointment for Hayhanen—one which would crave him to bisect relations with his family, to abstraction the English language, and to accept appropriate training in photographing documents, as able-bodied as to encode and break messages.
While his KGB training continued, Hayhanen formed as a artisan in the City of Valga, Estonia. Then, in the summer of 1949, he entered Finland as Eugene Nicolai Maki, an American-born laborer.
Background of the Absolute Maki
The absolute Eugene Nicolai Maki was built-in in Enaville, Idaho on May 30, 1919. His mother additionally was American born, but his ancestor had immigrated to the United States from Finland in 1905. In the mid-1920s, Eugene Maki’s parents became acutely afflicted by aglow letters of altitude in “the new” Russia. They awash their accouterments and larboard their Idaho acreage for New York to book access on a address to Europe.
After abrogation the United States, the Maki ancestors acclimatized in Estonia. From the outset, it was accessible that they had begin no “Utopia” on the bound of the Soviet Union. Letters that they wrote to their aloft neighbors showed that Mr. and Mrs. Maki were actual black and hardly absent America.
As the years passed, memories of the Maki ancestors gradually began to fade, and all but possibly two or three old time association of Enaville, Idaho, forgot that there has anytime been a Maki ancestors in that area. In Moscow, however, affairs were actuality fabricated for a “new” Eugene Maki, one thoroughly ashore in Soviet intelligence techniques, to access the scene.
Hayhanen Becomes Maki
From July 1949 to October 1952, Hayhanen resided in Finland and accustomed his character as the American-born Eugene Maki. During this period, he was best alert to abstain suspicion or alluring absorption to himself—his Soviet superiors absent him to become accustomed as an ordinary, aggressive citizen. This apocryphal “build up,” of course, was abandoned allotment of Hayhanen’s alertness for a new espionage assignment.
While in Finland, Hayhanen met and affiliated Hanna Kurikka. She was to accompany him in the United States on February 20, 1953—four months afterwards his accession here. Alike his wife knew him abandoned as Eugene Maki, so anxiously did he awning his antecedent life.
On July 3, 1951, Hayhanen—then active in Turku, Finland—visited the United States Legation in Helsinki. He displayed a bearing affirmation from the accompaniment of Idaho which showed that he was built-in in Enaville on May 30, 1919, and, in the attendance of a Vice Consul, he able an affirmation in which he explained that his ancestors had larboard the United States in 1928:
“I accompanied my mother to Estonia back I was eight years of age and resided with her until her afterlife in 1941. I larboard Estonia for Finland in June, 1943, and accept resided actuality for the acumen that I accept no funds with which to pay my busline to the United States.”
One year later—July 28, 1952—a authorization was issued to Hayhanen as Eugene Maki at Helsinki. Using this passport, he sailed October 16, 1952 from Southhampton, England aboard the Queen Mary and accustomed at New York City on October 21, 1952.
Several weeks afore he ancient for America, Hayhanen was recalled to Moscow and conflicting to a Soviet agent, “Mikhail,” who was to serve as his espionage aloft in this country. In adjustment to authorize acquaintance with “Mikhail” in the United States, Hayhanen was instructed that afterwards accession in New York he should go to the Alehouse on the Green in Central Park. Abreast the tavern, he was told, he would acquisition a signpost apparent “Horse Carts”
“You will let Mikhail apperceive of your accession by agreement a red deride tack in this signpost,” a Soviet official told him. “If you doubtable that you are beneath surveillance, abode a white deride tack on the board.”
Hayhanen Returns to the United States
The advice which Hayhanen furnished to U.S. admiral in Paris, France, in May 1957, was anon checked. There could be no catechism of its accuracy. Accordingly, access was anchored for Hayhanen on an airliner, and he was acceptable to acknowledgment to the United States.
Following his accession in New York on May 10, 1957, Hayhanen was accustomed a complete concrete examination, acceptable abode were begin for him, and arrange were fabricated for him to be interviewed by FBI agents.
From the abatement of 1952 until aboriginal in 1954, he said, “Mikhail” served as his espionage aloft in New York. They met abandoned back necessary—the affair abode actuality the Prospect Esplanade alms station. To barter letters and intelligence data, they acclimated “dead drops”—inconspicuous ambuscade places—in the New York area. One of these “dead drops” was an adamant blockade fence at the end of 7th Avenue abreast Macombs bridge. Accession was the abject of a lamp column in Fort Tryon Park.
In one of the “dead drops” mentioned by Hayhanen—a aperture in a set of adhesive accomplish in Prospect Park—FBI agents begin a hollowed-out bolt. The bolt was about two inches connected and division inch in diameter. It independent the afterward typewritten message:
“Nobody came to affair either 8 or 9th…as I was brash he should. Why? Should he be central or outside? Is time wrong? Abode seems right. Please check.”
The bolt was begin on May 15, 1957. It had been placed in the “dead drop” about two years previously, but, by a ambush of fate, a adjustment aggregation had abounding the aperture in the stairs with cement, entombing the bolt and the bulletin it contained.
Questioned about the alveolate bolt, Hayhanen said that “trick” containers such as this were about acclimated by the espionage accoutrement which he served. Amid the items he had been supplied by the Soviets were alveolate pens, pencils, screws, batteries, and coins—in some instances magnetized so they would attach to metal objects.
Hollow 50 Markkaa Coin
In the bashful home of Hayhanen and his wife on Dorislee Drive in Peekskill, New York, FBI agents begin such items as a 50 Markka bread from Finland. It had been biconcave out, and there was a baby aperture in the aboriginal “a” of the chat “Tasavalta” which appeared on the “tail side” of this coin.
FBI Laboratory experts brash this Finnish bread on May 17, 1957. They anon acclaimed that it bore a abundant affinity to the Jefferson nickel which the Brooklyn newsboy had apparent in 1953. Two abstracted bill acutely had been acclimated in authoritative this “trick” 50 Markkaa piece. This additionally was the case with the alveolate nickel. And both bill had a baby aperture in one printed letter so that a sharp-pointed instrument, such as a needle, could be acclimated to accessible them.
Although the FBI was assertive that it had assuredly articular the Soviet espionage accoutrement which was amenable for the alveolate Jefferson nickel, abandoned one bisected of the abstruseness airish by this bread back its analysis in June 1953 had been solved. The coded bulletin which the nickel independent still had to be deciphered.
During the FBI’s all-encompassing interviews with him, in May 1957 Hayhanen was anxiously questioned apropos the codes and cryptosystems which he had acclimated in the assorted Soviet intelligence agencies he had served back 1939. The advice which he provided was activated by FBI Laboratory experts to the microphotograph from the Jefferson nickel.
With this data, the FBI Laboratory succeeded in breaking through the blind of abstruseness which amidst the coded message. By June 3, 1957, the abounding argument of the microphotograph was known. The bulletin allegedly was brash for Hayhanen and had been beatific from the Soviet Union anon afterwards his accession in the United States. It read:
“1. WE CONGRATULATE YOU ON A SAFE ARRIVAL. WE CONFIRM THE RECEIPT OF YOUR LETTER TO THE ADDRESS `V REPEAT V’ AND THE READING OF LETTER NUMBER 1.”“2. FOR ORGANIZATION OF COVER, WE GAVE INSTRUCTIONS TO TRANSMIT TO YOU THREE THOUSAND IN LOCAL (CURRENCY). CONSULT WITH US PRIOR TO INVESTING IT IN ANY KIND OF BUSINESS, ADVISING THE CHARACTER OF THIS BUSINESS.”“3. ACCORDING TO YOUR REQUEST, WE WILL TRANSMIT THE FORMULA FOR THE PREPARATION OF SOFT FILM AND NEWS SEPARATELY, TOGETHER WITH (YOUR) MOTHER’S LETTER.”“4. IT IS TOO EARLY TO SEND YOU THE GAMMAS. ENCIPHER SHORT LETTERS, BUT THE LONGER ONES MAKE WITH INSERTIONS. ALL THE DATA ABOUT YOURSELF, PLACE OF WORK, ADDRESS, ETC., MUST NOT BE TRANSMITTED IN ONE CIPHER MESSAGE. TRANSMIT INSERTIONS SEPARATELY.”“5. THE PACKAGE WAS DELIVERED TO YOUR WIFE PERSONALLY. EVERYTHING IS ALL RIGHT WITH THE FAMILY. WE WISH YOU SUCCESS. GREETINGS FROM THE COMRADES. NUMBER 1, 3RD OF DECEMBER.”
Other Soviet Agents
Although Hayhanen assisted the FBI in analytic the abstruseness of the alveolate nickel, the advice he furnished placed added analytical challenges afore the Agents. “Mikhail,” the Soviet with whom Hayhanen maintained acquaintance from the abatement of 1952 until aboriginal 1954, was yet to be identified. And, back “Mikhail” abandoned from the arena in 1954, Hayhanen was angry over to accession Russian spy, one accepted abandoned as “Mark”. Hayhanen acquainted that “Mark” assuredly was still actively affianced in espionage aural the United States! He additionally charge be identified.
Hayhanen acquired the consequence that “Mikhail” was a Soviet adept official—possibly absorbed to the admiral or the United Nations. He declared “Mikhail” as apparently amid 40 and 50 years old; average build; long, attenuate nose; aphotic hair; and about bristles feet, nine inches tall. This description was akin adjoin the descriptions of Soviet assembly who had been in the United States amid 1952 and 1954. From the connected account of accessible suspects, the best analytic “candidate” appeared to be Mikhail Nikolaevich Svirin.
Svirin had been in and out of the United States on several occasions amid 1939 and 1956. From the closing allotment of August 1952 until April 1954, he had served as the aboriginal secretary to the Soviet United Nations Delegation in New York.
On May 16, 1957, FBI agents showed a accumulation of photographs to Hayhanen. The moment his eyes fell aloft a account of Mikhail Nikolaevich Svirin, Hayhanen straightened up in his armchair and announced, “That’s the one. There is actually no agnosticism about it. That’s Mikhail.’”
Svirin was aloft ability of American justice. He had alternate to the Soviet Union in October 1956.
The FBI’s abutting appointment was to analyze “Mark,” the Soviet abettor who had succeeded “Mikhail” as Hayhanen’s acquaintance man. Hayhanen did not apperceive breadth “Mark” was residing or the name which “Mark” was using; however, he was able to accouter abounding added capacity apropos him.
According to Hayhanen, “Mark” was a colonel in the KGB and had been affianced in espionage assignment back about 1927. He had appear to the United States in 1948 or 1949, entering by illegally bridge the Canadian border.
In befitting with instructions independent in a bulletin he accustomed from Soviet officials, Hayhanen was met by “Mark” at a cine amphitheater in Flushing, Connected Island, during the backward summer of 1954. As identification symbols, Hayhanen wore a dejected and red striped tie and smoked a pipe.
After their “introduction” at this theater, Hayhanen and “Mark” captivated common affairs in Prospect Park, on awash streets, and in added camouflaged places in the breadth of Greater New York. They additionally fabricated several abbreviate trips calm to Atlantic City, Philadelphia, Albany, Greenwich, and added communities in the eastern allotment of the United States.
“Mark” additionally beatific Hayhanen on trips alone. For example, in 1954, “Mark” instructed him to locate an American Army sergeant, one aforetime assigned to the United States Admiral in Moscow. At the time he accompanying this advice to FBI agents in May 1957, Hayhanen could not bethink the Army sergeant’s name. “I do recall, however, that we acclimated the blank name `Quebec’ in apropos to him and that he was recruited for Soviet intelligence assignment while in Moscow.”
(An accelerated analysis was launched to analyze and locate “Quebec.” It bound produced after-effects when, in analytical a alveolate allotment of animate from Hayhanen’s home, the FBI Laboratory apparent a allotment of microfilm beneath than one-inch square. The microfilm bore a typewritten bulletin which articular “Quebec” as Army baker Roy Rhodes and declared the Soviet agents had recruited him in January 1952. Abounding advice apropos Rhodes’ captivation in Russian espionage was broadcast to the Army; and afterward a court-martial, he was bedevilled to serve bristles years at adamantine labor.)
Hayhanen declared “Mark” as about 50 years old or possibly older; about bristles anxiety ten inches tall; attenuate gray hair; and average build. The anonymous Soviet abettor was an able photographer, and Hayhanen recalled that on one break in 1955, “Mark” took him to a accumulator allowance breadth he kept photo food on the fourth or fifth attic of a architecture amid abreast Clark and Fulton Streets in Brooklyn.
The chase for this accumulator allowance led FBI agents to a architecture at 252 Fulton Street. Amid the tenants was one Emil R. Goldfus, a columnist who had operated a flat on the fifth attic back January, 1954—and who additionally had aforetime busy a fifth-floor accumulator allowance there.
In April 1957 (the aforementioned ages Hayhanen boarded a address for Europe beneath instructions to acknowledgment to Moscow), Goldfus had told a few bodies in the Fulton Street architecture that he was action South on a seven-week vacation. “It’s doctor’s orders,” he explained. “I accept a atrium condition.”
Goldfus abolished about April 26, 1957. Beneath than three weeks later, FBI agents accustomed at 252 Fulton Street in following of the abstruse “Mark.” Back Goldfus appeared to acknowledgment the description of Hayhanen’s espionage superior, surveillance was accustomed abreast his photo studio.
On May 28, 1957, agents empiric a man akin “Mark” on a bank in a esplanade anon adverse the access to 252 Fulton Street. This man occasionally absolved about the park; he appeared to be nervous; and he created the consequence that he was attractive for someone—possibly attempting to actuate any abnormal action in the neighborhood. At 6:50 p.m., this man ancient on foot—the agents, assertive their attendance had not been detected, chose to delay rather than booty a adventitious of abaft the amiss man. “If that’s `Mark,’ he’ll return,” they accurately surmised.
While the surveillance connected at 252 Fulton Street, added FBI agents fabricated circadian checks on the “dead drops” which Hayhanen declared he and “Mark” had used. The agents’ connected hours of backbone were adored on the night of June 13, 1957. At 10:00 p.m., they saw the lights go on in Goldfus’ studio, and a man was empiric affective in the room.
The lights went out at 11:52 p.m., and a man who appeared to about fit the description of “Mark” stepped into the black alfresco the building. This man was followed bottomward Fulton Street to a adjacent alms station. Moments later, FBI agents saw him booty a alms to 28th Street, and they stood by disregarded as he emerged from the alms and absolved to the Auberge Latham on East 28th Street.
On June 15, a photograph of Goldfus which the FBI took with a hidden camera was apparent to Hayhanen. “You’ve begin him,” the aloft Soviet Abettor exclaimed. “That’s ‘Mark.’”
Goldfus—registered at the Auberge Latham beneath the name of Martin Collins—was kept beneath surveillance from the night of June 13 until the morning of June 21, 1957. During this period, FBI agents carefully angry calm the apart ends of the investigation, affairs which had to be bound afore this Russian intelligence administrator could be taken into custody.
Arrested by the Immigration and Naturalization Account on an conflicting accreditation based aloft his actionable access into the United States and abortion to annals as an alien, “Mark” displayed a aggressive attitude. He banned to abet at all.
Following his arrest, “Mark” was begin to acquire abounding apocryphal papers, including two American bearing certificates. The aboriginal showed that he was Emil R. Goldfus, built-in August 2, 1902 in New York City. According to the additional one, he was Martin Collins, built-in June 2, 1897, additionally in New York. Analysis was to authorize that the Emil Goldfus whose bearing affirmation “Mark” displayed had died in infancy. The affirmation in the name of Collins was a forgery.
During his career as a soviet spy, “Mark” additionally had acclimated abounding added nabel in accession to the ones cited above. For example, during the abatement of 1948, while en avenue to the United States from the Soviet Union, he had adopted the character of Andrew Kayotis. The absolute Andrew Kayotis, believed to accept died in a Lithuanian hospital, was built-in in Lithuania on October 10, 1895. He had accustomed in the United States in October 1916 and became a aborigine American aborigine at Grand Rapids, Michigan on December 30, 1930.
On July 15, 1947, Andrew Kayotis, again residing in Detroit, was issued a authorization so that he could appointment ancestors in Europe. Analysis in Detroit appear that several bodies there advised Kayotis to be in poor concrete action at the time of his abandonment from the United States. Letters afterwards accustomed from him adumbrated that he was in a Lithuanian hospital. Back Kayotis’ accompany in Michigan heard no added from him, they affected that he had anesthetized away.
Nearly 10 years later, “Mark” was to accept that he had acclimated Kayotis’ authorization during the abatement of 1948 in booking access aboard an ocean liner from LeHavre, France, to Canada. On November 14, 1948, he disembarked from the address at Quebec—and bound abandoned out of sight.
“Mark” fabricated accession admission—that he was a Russian citizen, Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, built-in July 2, 1902 in the Soviet Union. Although he banned to altercate his intelligence activities, the photo flat and auberge allowance which he active were basic museums of avant-garde espionage equipment. They independent shortwave radios, blank pads, cameras and blur for bearing microdots, a alveolate atom brush, belt links, and abundant added “trick” containers.
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